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3月5日,第十二届全国人民代表大会第五次会议今天在北京开幕,李 总理作2017年政府工作报告,


。2017 中英文解读,2017 双语对照。

  总理李 作2017 中英文解读(全文)


Esteemed Deputies,


On behalf of the State Council, I will now report to you on the work of the government and ask for your deliberation and approval. I also wish to have comments on my report from the members of the National Committee of the Chinese Peoples Political Consultative Conference (CPPCC).


Let me begin with a review of our work in 2016.

过去一年,我国发展面临国内外诸多矛盾叠加、风险隐患交汇的严峻挑战。在以 同志为核心的党中央坚强领导下,全国各族人民迎难而上,砥砺前行,推动经济社会持续健康发展。党的十八届六中全会正式明确 总书记的核心地位,体现了党和人民的根本利益,对保证党和国家兴旺发达、长治久安,具有十分重大而深远的意义。各地区、各部门不断增强政治意识、大局意识、核心意识、看齐意识,推动全面建成小康社会取得新的重要进展,全面深化改革迈出重大步伐,全面依法治国深入实施,全面从严治党纵深推进,全年经济社会发展主要目标任务圆满完成,十三五实现了良好开局。

In the past year, Chinas development has faced grave challenges posed by a great many problems and interwoven risks and dangers both at home and abroad.

However, under the strong leadership of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China with Comrade Xi Jinping at its core, we the Chinese people have risen to the challenge and worked hard to press ahead, driving forward sustained, healthy economic and social development.

At the Sixth Plenary Session of the 18th Party Central Committee, the core position of General Secretary Xi Jinping was formally affirmed, which reflects the fundamental interests of the Party and the Chinese people, and is of crucial and far-reaching significance for ensuring the flourishing and long-term stability of the Party and the country. All regions and all government departments have steadily strengthened their consciousness of the need to maintain political integrity, think in big-picture terms, uphold the leadership core, and keep in alignment. Pushing ahead with all-around efforts, we have achieved major progress in finishing building a moderately prosperous society in all respects, made important strides in deepening reform, continued to exercise law-based governance, and made further progress in practicing strict Party self-governance; and we have accomplished the years main tasks and targets for economic and social development, and got the 13th Five-Year Plan off to a great start.


The economy has registered a slower but stable performance with good momentum for growth.

GDP reached 74.4 trillion yuan, representing 6.7-percent growth, and seeing China outpace most other economies. China contributed more than 30 percent of global growth. The CPI rose by 2 percent. With an 8.5-percent increase in profits, industrial enterprises reversed the previous years negative growth of 2.3 percent. Energy consumption per unit of GDP fell by 5 percent. Economic performance improved markedly in quality and returns.


Employment growth exceeded projections.

A total of 13.14 million new urban jobs were added over the course of the year. The number of college graduates finding employment or starting businesses reached another record high. The registered urban unemployment rate stood at 4.02 percent at year-end 2016, the lowest level in years. For China, a large developing country with a population of over 1.3 billion, attaining this level of employment is no easy task.


Continued advances were made in reform and opening up.

Breakthroughs were made in reforms in major sectors and key links, and initial success was achieved in supply-side structural reform. New measures were introduced for opening China up, rapid progress was made in pursuing the Belt and Road Initiative, and a number of major projects and industrial-capacity cooperation projects with other countries were launched.


Economic structural adjustment was stepped up.

Consumption was the main driver of economic growth. The value created by the service sector rose to 51.6 percent of GDP. High-tech industries and equipment manufacturing grew rapidly. In agriculture, production was stable and structural adjustments were made, and we had continued good grain harvests.


New drivers of growth gained strength.

Further progress was made in pursuing the innovation-driven development strategy, and a number of world-leading achievements were made in science and technology. Emerging industries were thriving, and the transformation and upgrading of traditional industries accelerated. People were busy launching businesses or making innovations, with a 24.5-percent year-on-year increase in the number of new businesses registered-an average of 15,000 new businesses daily. With self-employed traders and other market entities included we had an average of 45,000 new market entities launched per day. New growth drivers are opening new prospects for Chinas development.


Infrastructure became ever-better able to sustain development.

Over 1,900 kilometers of new high-speed rail lines came into service, and more than 6,700 kilometers of expressways and 290,000 kilometers of rural roads were built or upgraded. Construction picked up pace on urban rail transit facilities and underground utility tunnels. Construction began on 21 major water conservancy projects. The number of 4G mobile communications subscribers grew by 340 million and over 5.5 million kilometers of optical fiber cables were added.


Living standards were improved.

Personal per capita disposable income increased by 6.3 percent in real terms. The number of people living in poverty in rural areas was reduced by 12.4 million, including more than 2.4 million people relocated from inhospitable areas. More than 6 million homes in rundown urban areas and over 3.8 million dilapidated rural houses were renovated. In tourism, domestic trips showed rapid growth, and overseas trips exceeded 120 million. People in both urban and rural areas saw a rise in living standards.


China successfully hosted the G20 2016 Hangzhou Summit, and helped to deliver a number of important pioneering, leading, and institutional outcomes, thus doing its part for global economic governance.


2016 was an unusual year in our countrys development. China was confronted with an external environment in which the world saw the lowest economic and trade growth in seven years, growing volatility in global financial markets, and sudden and frequent regional and global challenges. Domestically, China faced multiple difficulties: major structural problems, prominent risks and dangers, and mounting downward pressure on the economy. China found itself in a complex environment as reform entered a critical stage, profound changes took place affecting interests, and factors impacting social stability grew.

Given all these factors, it was not easy for us to maintain stable economic performance. And yet we succeeded, and even managed to make progress on many fronts. Once again, this shows that we the Chinese people have the courage, ingenuity, and ability to overcome any difficulty or hardship. It also shows that the Chinese economy possesses potential, resilience, and strengths, so we can be sure there is even better development ahead for China.


I will now move on to discuss our main work last year


First,we continued to develop new and more effective ways of carrying out regulationat the macro level, thus keeping the economy performing within an appropriate range.

Lastyear, we faced difficult choices in conducting macro-level regulation, but westood firm in not adopting strong stimulus policies that would have had aneconomy-wide impact, and strived instead to maintain steady growth, adjust the structure, and guard against risks through reform and innovation. We strengthened targeted and well-timed regulation on the basis of range-basedregulation.

Moreproactive fiscal policy was pursued, and the increase in the fiscal deficit wasused mainly to cover tax and fee cuts. The trial replacement of business taxwith value added tax (VAT) was extended to cover all sectors, slashing the taxburden of businesses for the year by over 570 billion yuan and reducing taxburdens in every sector. A transitional plan for sharing VAT revenue betweenthe central and local governments was formulated and implemented to ensurefinancial resources of local governments remained unchanged. More local government bonds were issued to replace outstanding debts, reducing interest payments by roughly 400 billion yuan.

Aprudent monetary policy was pursued in a flexible and appropriate manner. TheM2 money supply increased by 11.3 percent, below our projected target of around13 percent. We used a range of monetary policy tools to support the developmentof the real economy.

Measures were taken to upgrade consumption. We unveiled policies to encourage privateinvestment, and saw investment begin to stabilize. We strengthened efforts to manage financial risks. The RMB exchange rate regime continued to improve, and the exchange rate remained generally stable at an adaptive and equilibrium level. We also exercised category-based regulation over the real estate market. By doing this, we have safeguarded Chinas economic and financial security.


I.Review of the work we did in 2015

过去一年,我国发展面临多重困难和严峻挑战。在以 同志为总书记的党中央坚强领导下,全国各族人民以坚定的信心和非凡的勇气,攻坚克难,开拓进取,经济社会发展稳中有进、稳中有好,完成了全年主要目标任务,改革开放和社会主义现代化建设取得新的重大成就。

In the past year, China has encountered many difficulties and challenges in its development. However, under the leadership of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China (CPC) headed by General Secretary Xi Jinping, and with confidence and courage, all the people of China have worked to overcome obstacles and have pressed ahead with a pioneering spirit. As a result, progress has been achieved and stability ensured in economic and social development, the main tasks and targets for the year have been fulfilled, and major achievements have been made in reform, opening up, and socialist modernization.


The economy operated within an appropriate range. GDP reached 67.7 trillion yuan, representing an increase of 6.9% over the previous year-a growth rate faster than that of most other major economies. Food crop production increased for the 12th year in a row. Consumer prices grew slowly. Of particular note, the employment situation overall remained stable, with 13.12 million new urban jobs created over the course of the year, surpassing the years target and becoming an economic highlight.


Encouraging progress was made in structural adjustment. The service sector as a proportion of GDP rose to 50.5%, accounting for more than half for the first time. The contribution of consumption toward economic growth reached 66.4%. High-tech industries and equipment manufacturing grew faster than other industries. Energy consumption per unit of GDP fell by 5.6%.


New driving forces for development grew rapidly. Further progress was made in implementing the strategy of innovation-driven development,the penetration of the Internet into all industries picked up pace, and emerging industries grew rapidly. Business startups and innovations by the general public flourished, with the number of newly registered businesses rising by 21.6% in 2015, or an average of 12,000 new businesses per day. New driving forces played a major role in keeping employment stable and pushing ahead industry upgrading, and are now driving profound economic and social change in China.


Living standards improved. Personal per capita disposable income increased by 7.4% in real terms, overtaking the growth rate of the economy. By the end of last year, personal savings deposits had risen by 8.5%, an increase of more than four trillion yuan. In rural areas, another 64.34 million people gained access to safe drinking water and greater alleviation efforts reduced the number of people living in poverty by 14.42 million.


A number of world-class innovations were made in science and technology.Major headway was made in the development of 3G nuclear power technology, Chinas self-developed C919 large jetliner rolled off the assembly line, and Tu Youyou was awarded the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine. These achievements in Chinas development, a source of pride and motivation for our people, did not come easily.


They were made in the context of an extremely complicated and challenging international environment. In 2015, world economic growth fell to its lowest rate in six years, growth in international trade slowed, commodity prices plummeted, and there was growing volatility in the global financial market. All this had a direct impact on Chinas economy. They were made at the same time as deep-seated domestic problems were becoming prominent and downward pressure on the economy was mounting. While dealing with the slowdown in economic growth, making difficult structural adjustments, and absorbing the effects of previous economic stimulus policies, China was also confronted with many difficult problems and choices in the running of the economy, and this called for effective responses based on the need both to combine long-term and short-term considerations and to seek benefit and avoid harm. Finally, they were made at a time when Chinas economic output had exceeded 60 trillion yuan. Every percentage point of GDP growth today is equivalent to 1.5 percentage points of growth five years ago or 2.5 percentage points of growth ten years ago. The larger the economy grows, the greater the difficulty of achieving growth. In the face of these difficulties and pressures, all our people have truly exerted themselves and progressed step by step to get us where we are today. This once again demonstrates that no difficulty or hardship will ever stop China from moving forward.


I will now move on to discuss the main work we did last year:

一是着力稳增长调结构防风险,创新宏观调控方式。为应对持续加大的经济下行压力,我们在区间调控基础上,实施定向调控和相机调控。积极的财政政策注重加力增效,扩大结构性减税范围,实行普遍性降费,盘活财政存量资金。发行地方政府债券置换存量债务3.2万亿元,降低利息负担约2000亿元,减轻了地方政府偿债压力。稳健的货币政策注重松紧适度,多次降息降准,改革存贷比管理,创新货币政策工具,加大对实体经济支持力度。扩大有效投资,设立专项基金,加强水利、城镇棚户区和农村危房改造、中西部铁路和公路等薄弱环节建设。实施重点领域消费促进工程,城乡居民旅游、网购、信息消费等快速增长。去年还积极应对股市、汇市异常波动等金融领域的多种风险挑战,守住了不发生系统性区域性风险的底线,维护了国家经济金融安全。First, we maintained stable growth, made structural adjustments, guarded against risks, and developed new ways of conducting macro regulation. In responding to the mounting downward pressure on the economy, we exercised targeted and well-timed regulation on the basis of range-based regulation. We adopted proactive fiscal policy that focused on increasing intensity and efficacy by expanding the scope of structural tax reductions, reducing fees across the board, and putting dormant budgetary funds to good use. Local government bonds issued to replace outstanding debt reached 3.2 trillion yuan, lessening the interest payment burden of local governments by approximately 200 billion yuan while also reducing their debt repayment pressure. We pursued prudent monetary policy with an appropriate amount of intensity, making several cuts to interest rates and required reserve ratios, reforming management of the loan-to-deposit ratio, creating new monetary policy tools, and increasing support for the real economy. Effective investment increased, special-purpose funds were established, and development was strengthened in areas in need of attention, including water conservancy, rundown urban areas and dilapidated rural housing, and railways and highways in the central and western regions. Consumer spending was promoted in key areas, spurring rapid growth in spending on recreational travel, online shopping, and information goods and services. In 2015, we also responded proactively to a variety of risks and challenges in the financial sector, such as unusual fluctuations in the stock market and the foreign exchange market, ensuring that no systemic or regional threats arose, thus safeguarding Chinas economic and financial security.


Second, we intensified reform and opening up to invigorate the market. Rather than adopting strong stimulus policies that would have an economy-wide impact, we continued to move forward with structural reform. We intensified reform to streamline administration, delegate more powers, improve regulation, and provide better services. We delegated the power or cancelled the requirement for government review for 311 items, cancelled the requirement for verification or approval for 123 professional qualifications, and put a complete stop to the practice of non-administrative review. The number of items which require government approval for new businesses prior to registration was cut by 85%, and the system of a separate business license, organization code certificate, and taxation registration certificate was replaced by a unified business license with a unified social credit code. Both operational and post-operational oversight over businesses were strengthened, and public service procedures were improved. Government-related procedures for individuals and businesses were made much simpler, such that enthusiasm for stepping out into business and making innovations is rising by the day.


Fiscal, tax, financial, and other key reforms were deepened. The central government cut, by one third, the number of items for which special transfer payments are permitted, while scaling up its general transfer payments. Steady progress was made in replacing business tax with VAT. Ad valorem taxation was extended to cover more types of resource taxes. The upper limit of the floating band on deposit rates was removed, the deposit insurance system was introduced, and the RMB cross-border payment system was established. Pricing reform was intensified, with the number of central government set prices reduced by 80% and the number of local government set prices cut by more than 50%. We carried out state-owned enterprise (SOE) reforms, rural reforms, and investment and financing reforms, ecological management reforms, and others. Efforts to intensify reform in all respects are beginning to deliver results.



《 中英文对照全文》( Plus action plan was implemented. A great number of makers started businesses and made innovations. Improvements were made to policies in support of agriculture to promote transformation of the agricultural growth model. In addressing the decline in industrial growth and the downward slide incorporate performance, we worked to foster new industries and upgrade traditional ones. We launched the Made in China 2025 initiative to upgrade manufacturing, set up government funds to encourage investment in emerging industries and to develop small and medium-sized enterprises, and established more national innovation demonstration zones. We cut overcapacity and encouraged business acquisitions and restructuring. Cuts made in outdated production capacity over the past three years have included over 90 million metric tons of steel and iron, 230 million metric tons of cement, over 76 million weight cases of plate glass, and more than one million metric tons of electrolytic aluminum. The development of production- and consumer-oriented service industries picked up momentum. We took serious measures to conserve energy, reduce emissions, and protect the environment, exceeding obligatory targets. We released self-imposed emissions reduction targets and contributed to the positive outcomes of international negotiations on climate change.


Fourth, we promoted coordinated development between regions and the new type of urbanization to expand development space. Work continued to promote the coordinated development of the eastern region, the central region, the western region, and the northeast; priority was placed on moving forward with the Three Initiatives-the Belt and Road Initiative, the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei integration initiative, and the Yangtze Economic Belt initiative. A number of major projects were also launched to develop infrastructure, improve the distribution of industries, and achieve ecological and environmental conservation. Policies and measures were introduced to promote the development of Tibet, Xinjiang, and Tibetan ethnic areas in the provinces of Sichuan, Yunnan, Gansu, and Qinghai. We pressed ahead with the reform of the household registration system, adopted a residence certification system, and stepped up the development of urban infrastructure, making progress in developing new urbanization.


Fifth, we promoted the reform and development of social programs to improve living standards. Despite fiscal constraints, we continued to intensify efforts to help ensure the wellbeing of our people. New policies were launched to create jobs and business startup opportunities for college graduates and those with difficulties finding employment. Over the course of the year, 7.72 million government-subsidized housing units were basically completed in urban areas, work started on the reconstruction of 6.01 million housing units in rundown urban areas, and 4.32 million dilapidated houses in rural areas were rebuilt, helping large numbers of families that are struggling with housing realize their dream of having a home to settle in. We moved more quickly to improve conditions in badly built and poorly operated schools providing compulsory education in poor areas, deepened the reform of the professional title system for elementary and secondary school teachers, and increased the number of students from poor rural areas who were enrolled in key institutions of higher learning by a further 10.5%. Comprehensive reform was carried out in all public hospitals at the county level, the coverage of the serious disease insurance scheme was extended to more rural and non-working urban residents, a system of assistance for treating major and serious diseases was put in place, and a system for providing living allowances for people with disabilities who are in need and for granting nursing care subsidies to persons with severe disabilities was established. We increased subsistence allowances, benefits for entitled groups, and basic pension benefits for enterprise retirees, implemented the reform of the pension system for employees of Party and government offices and public institutions, and improved their wage system. Efforts to develop basic public cultural services were also intensified. All of this has resulted in a stronger sense of benefit in society.


Sixth, we developed new ways of conducting law-based administration and governance to promote social harmony and stability. The State Council submitted 11 legislative proposals to the Standing Committee of the National Peoples Congress and enacted or revised eight sets of administrative regulations. Efforts were accelerated to increase government transparency and expand the application of e-government and online administration. We set up a mechanism to inspect and establish accountability for the implementation of major government policies and introduced third-party evaluations. We responded effectively to natural disasters and emergencies. Efforts were stepped up to ensure workplace safety; as a result, we have seen a continued reduction in the number of total accidents, including the number of accidents of a serious or large-scale nature as well as those in industries where accidents tend to be more common. We moved ahead with the demonstration initiative to ensure food safety. We strengthened all-round efforts to maintain law and order and cracked down on crimes in accordance with the law to safeguard public security.

我们深入开展三严三实专题教育,锲而不舍落实党中央八项规定精神,坚决纠正四风,严格执行国务院约法三章。加强行政监察和审计监督。大力推进党风廉政建设和反腐败斗争,一批 受到惩处。

The campaign to build understanding of the Three Stricts and Three Honests* was intensified, the CPC Central Committees eight-point decision on improving Party and government conduct continued to be implemented, action was taken against formalism, bureaucratism, hedonism, and extravagance, and rigorous efforts were made to carry out the State Councils three-point decision on curbing government spending. Administrative supervision and oversight through auditing were strengthened. We stepped up efforts to improve Party conduct and government integrity and fight corruption, and brought a number of offenders to justice.


We marked the 70th anniversary of the victory in the Chinese Peoples War of Resistance against Japanese Aggression and the Global War against Fascism. This anniversary was a reminder of Chinas place in history as the main theater in the East during the Global War against Fascism and its major contribution to the war effort. The Chinese people marked this occasion to demonstrate their dedication to safeguarding peace and upholding justice together with other peoples.

一年来,全方位外交成果丰硕。 主席等 出访多国,出席联合国系列峰会、二十国集团领导人峰会、亚太经合组织领导人非正式会议、气候变化大会、东亚合作领导人系列会议、世界经济论坛等重大活动。成功举行中非合作论坛峰会、中欧领导人会晤,启动中拉论坛。同主要大国关系取得新进展,同周边国家务实合作深入推进,同发展中国家友好合作不断拓展,同联合国等国际组织和国际机制的关系全面加强,经济外交、人文交流卓有成效。中国作为负责任大国,在国际和地区事务中发挥了重要的建设性作用。

Over the past year, Chinas all-round diplomacy has delivered fruitful outcomes. President Xi Jinping and other Chinese leaders have visited many countries and attended international events including the United Nations summits, the G20 Leaders Summit, the 23rd APEC Economic Leaders Meeting, the 21st Session of the Conference of the Parties to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change, the East Asian leaders meetings on cooperation, and the World Economic Forum annual meeting 2016. The Summit of the Forum on China-Africa Cooperation and the China-EU Leaders Meeting were held, and the China and the Community of Latin American and Caribbean States (CELAC) Forum was inaugurated. Fresh progress was made in Chinas relations with other major countries; pragmatic cooperation with neighboring countries was strengthened; friendship and cooperation with other developing countries grew; relations with the United Nations and other international organizations and mechanisms were strengthened in all areas; and notable achievements were made in economic diplomacy and cultural exchanges. As a responsible major country, China played an important constructive role in international and regional affairs.

过去一年取得的成绩,是以 同志为总书记的党中央统揽全局、科学决策的结果,是全党全军全国各族人民齐心协力、顽强拼搏的结果。我代表国务院,向全国各族人民,向各民主党派、各人民团体和各界人士,表示诚挚感谢!向香港特别行政区同胞、澳门特别行政区同胞、台湾同胞和海外侨胞,表示诚挚感谢!向关心和支持中国现代化建设事业的各国政府、国际组织和各国朋友,表示诚挚感谢!

We owe these achievements to the sound overall decisions made by the CPC Central Committee headed by General Secretary Xi Jinping, and to the concerted and determined efforts of all members of the Party, all members of the armed forces, and all the people of China. On behalf of the State Council, I wish to express our sincere gratitude to the people of all ethnic groups in China including public figures from all sectors of society and to the other parties and the peoples organizations. I express our heartfelt appreciation to our fellow countrymen and women in the Hong Kong and Macao special administrative regions and in Taiwan, and to Chinese nationals overseas. I also wish to express our sincere thanks to the governments, international organizations, and friends from all over the world who have shown understanding and support for China in her endeavor to modernize.


While recognizing our achievements, we are also keenly aware that our country is still confronted with many difficulties and problems in pursuing development. With the decline in global trade, amongst other factors, China experienced a fall in its total imports and exports and failed to reach its growth objective in this regard. Growth in investment is sluggish, overcapacity is a serious problem in certain industries, some enterprises are facing difficulties in production and operations, growth prospects are mixed for different regions and different industries, notable imbalances exist between government revenue and expenditures, the basic institutions for the capital market still need to be improved, and there are latent risks in the financial and other sectors. There are many problems in medical care, education, elderly care, food and medicine safety, income distribution, and urban management that are of concern to the people. The situation remains grave when it comes to environmental pollution, and some regions are frequently hit by severe smog. Particularly distressing, last year saw the sinking of the cruise ship Oriental Star on the Yangtze and the massive explosion in Tianjin Port. The deaths and injuries and the damage and loss of property from these incidents were devastating, and the profound lessons these incidents have taught us should never be forgotten. There are still inadequacies in the work of the government. Some reforms, policies, and measures have not been fully implemented; a small number of government employees either do not or are unable to fulfill their duties, or behave irresponsibly; and the corruption and misconduct in some sectors cannot be ignored. We must be more mindful of the difficulties ahead, more ready to assume responsibility, and more hardworking in ensuring these problems are solved. The wishes of the people should always determine the aim of our governance; we must do our utmost to deliver a strong performance in our work and never fail to live up to the great trust the people have placed in us.


Esteemed Deputies,

2015年是十二五收官之年。过去五年,我国发展成就举世瞩目。党的十八大以来,在以 同志为总书记的党中央坚强领导下,面对错综复杂的国际环境和艰巨繁重的国内改革发展稳定任务,我们继续坚持稳中求进工作总基调,深化改革开放,实施一系列利当前、惠长远的重大举措,十二五规划确定的主要目标任务全面完成。

The period covered by the 12th Five-Year Plan came to a close in 2015. During the past five years, impressive achievements were made in Chinas development. Since the 18th CPC National Congress in 2012, we have found ourselves in a complicated international environment, and we have faced the challenging tasks of carrying out reform and development and maintaining stability at home. However, under the guidance of the CPC Central Committee headed by General Secretary Xi Jinping, we have continued our commitment to the general principle of making progress while working to keep performance stable, deepened reform and opening up, and adopted a series of major measures that should deliver both immediate and long-term benefits. As a result, we successfully fulfilled all the main tasks and targets set out in the 12th Five-Year Plan.


First, a high rate of economic development was maintained. During this period, Chinas GDP grew at an average annual rate of 7.8%. This growth enabled China to comfortably maintain its position as the worlds second-largest economy, and become the largest trading nation in terms of goods as well as a major outbound investor.


Second, milestone progress was achieved in structural adjustments. Service industries have grown to be the largest economic sector, information technology has been further integrated into industrialization, and overall agricultural production capacity has notably improved. Consumption has become a major driver of growth. Over half of Chinas population now resides in urban areas. Energy consumption per unit of GDP has dropped by 18.2%, and the emissions of major pollutants have been cut by over 12%.


Third, across-the-board improvements were made in infrastructure. The length of railways in service reached 121,000 kilometers, of which more than 19,000 kilometers are high-speed rail lines-more than 60% of the worlds total. The length of expressways open to traffic exceeded 120,000 kilometers, the eastern and middle routes of the South-to-North Water Diversion Project were put into operation, and the worlds largest 4G mobile network was built in China.


Fourth, significant breakthroughs were made in scientific and technological innovation. Original achievements were made in quantum communications, neutrino oscillation, and iron-based high-temperature superconductivity through basic research. World-class advances were made in manned spaceflight, the lunar exploration program, and deep-water exploration.


Fifth, living standards improved significantly. Personal income increased faster than economic growth, and the urban-rural income gap was narrowed. Over 64 million urban jobs were created. Government subsidies were used to build 40.13 million housing units in urban areas, providing new homes for around 100 million people. The number of rural residents living in poverty was cut by more than 100 million, and over 300 million rural residents gained access to safe drinking water.


Sixth, notable achievements were made in social development. Significant progress was made in ensuring equal access to education, and the quality of education markedly improved. Basic health insurance was expanded to achieve complete coverage, and participation in basic pension plans exceeded 80% of the whole population. Chinas soft power continued to grow. The rule of law was advanced in all respects. Significant achievements were made in the military revolution with Chinese characteristics. Over the past five years, Chinas economic strength, scientific and technological capabilities, defense capabilities, and international influence have all been strengthened considerably.


The achievements attained during the period of the 12th Five-Year Plan fully demonstrate the strength of socialism with Chinese characteristics and the creativity of the Chinese people. The Chinese people can derive great confidence and a strengthened sense of unity from these achievements, drawing on them to forge ahead on this new leg of the journey toward realizing the Two Centenary Goals.


II. The main targets, tasks, and measures for the period of the 13th Five-Year Plan from 2016 through 2020


On the basis of the CPC Central Committee Recommendations for the 13th Five-Year Plan for Economic and Social Development, the State Council has drawn up the draft of the 13th Five-Year Plan for Economic and Social Development and submitted it to this session for your review and approval.